Chicken Allergy Test
Latin name: Gallus spp.
Source material: Freeze-dried, raw meat
Chicken is a food which may result in allergy symptoms in sensitised individuals.
Chicken Allergy Test: Allergen Exposure
Chicken is the most commonly consumed type of poultry in the world, and has been known to humans since as early as 600 BC.
It may be sold as a whole bird (usually plucked, gutted and with the head and feet removed) or divided into breast fillets, wings, thighs or other constituent parts. Fresh or frozen chicken meat is cooked in a variety of ways, including roasting, grilling, barbecuing, shallow or deep frying. Freezing chicken prolongs its safe storage life by around 6 to 12 months, depending on the specific cut and whether it has been precooked.
The meat itself is generally low in fat, as most of the birds body fat is stored directly beneath the skin. The meat contains about two to three times as much polyunsaturated fat as most types of red meat, with lower concentrations of cholesterol and saturated fat.
Chicken is also a common ingredient in soups, stews, salads, pies and curries and is often minced and reformed into burgers, nuggets or sausages.
Chicken bones are often boiled to produce chicken stock, which has a number of culinary uses. Chicken livers and/or gizzards are commonly available packaged separately, and may be made into stock or added to other dishes. Chicken liver is also often used in the production of pâtés.
In Japan raw chicken is sometimes consumed in a dish called torisashi, which is sliced raw chicken served in sashimi style.
Due to the (sometimes undeclared) presence of chicken or chicken products in many processed and packaged foods, it may be considered a hidden allergen.
Chicken Allergy Test: Allergen Description
No specific allergens present in chicken have been fully characterised to date, although a number of proteins have been identified including the potential allergen chicken serum albumin. Chicken serum albumin may induce a cross-sensitization between egg and chicken proteins.
Chicken Allergy Test: Potential Cross-Reactivity
Cross-reactivity between related species within the family Galliformes, such as turkey, grouse and squab could be expected. Additionally egg yolk and chicken meat may have some allergens in common.
Chicken Allergy Test: Clinical Experience
In a study of 25 adults with bronchial asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis due to bird feathers, about one-third showed an association of sensitization to egg proteins, with a few patients demonstrating specific IgE antibodies to both egg and chicken meat.
In a study of children with atopic dermatitis, 21/132 showed positive skin prick tests to chicken.
An early study also reported correlation between chicken and egg, inducing skin prick test reactions in children with atopic dermatitis.
Specific IgE-antibodies to chicken have been demonstrated in several studies on patients with bronchial asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, or atopic dermatitis. Association to sensitization to egg and bird feathers has been shown in some cases.
Symptoms of primary poultry allergy may include oral allergy syndrome, gastrointestinal complaints, urticaria, angioedema, and in rare cases anaphylaxis with cardiovascular symptoms.
Raw or undercooked chicken or chicken products may contain salmonella, and therefore care should be taken when handling and preparing chicken, and cooking times should be adhered to carefully.