Rice Allergy Test
Latin name: Oryza sativa
Source material: Unpolished rice
Family: Graminae (Poaceae)
Common names: Rice, Jasmine rice, Wild rice, Basmati rice, popped Rice, Rice semolina
Synonyms: Oryza sativa L., O. glaberrinia Steud
Rice is a food which may result in allergy symptoms in sensitised individuals.
Rice Allergy Test: Allergen Exposure
Rice is an annual grass which produces small elongated grains with a hard starchy kernel. Originally native to tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia, rice has been cultivated by humans for over 7,000 years.
Today, it is grown all over the world, wherever suitable conditions occur and is an extremely important staple crop for more than half of the world’s population. Key producers include India, China, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam, Burma, the Philippines, Cambodia, and Pakistan.
Many combinations of milling, polishing, and parboiling are employed in different cultures, resulting in many different forms and nutrient values of the final product. Common forms include milled white rice, instant/pre-cooked rice, jasmine, wild, basmati, and popped rice, and rice semolina, also known as rice flour.
Rice that is high in starch is used extensively as breakfast food – as puffed rice or flakes. Starchy types of Rice are also used in pastries, soups, and starch pastes; glutinous types, containing a sugary material instead of starch, are used in Asia in candies and desserts. Rice is also extensively used in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages.
The grains are an excellent source of carbohydrates, as well as certain vitamins and minerals. Enriched rice is produced, which contains calcium, iron and many B-complex vitamins. Brown varieties are generally more nutritious than their white counterparts.
Rice hulls (bran) are used for animal fodder, fuel, insulation, and in certain manufacturing processes such as the production of purified alpha cellulose and furfural. Rice straw is used as roofing and packing material, animal feed, fertiliser, fabric, and fuel.
Rice Allergy Test: Allergen Description
Several allergens present in rice have been characterised, including a lipid transfer protein, a profilin, a glyoxalase and an alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor.
Although rice seed contains the panallergen profilin, the levels of this are much lower than those in foods commonly known to contain profilin.
Rice Allergy Test: Potential Cross-Reactivity
An extensive cross-reactivity among pollen of the different individual species and tribes of the Poaceae family could be expected and in fact does occur frequently. Although similar patterns of cross-reactivity may occur among the seeds/grains of the family, this has not been as well determined as in the case of pollen.
Cross-allergenicity among the cereal grains rice, wheat, corn, japanese millet and italian millet has been demonstrated.
Rice Allergy Test: Clinical Experience
Rice may uncommonly induce symptoms of food allergy, asthma, rhinitis, eczema and urticaria in sensitised individuals; however, in communities where rice is a staple food, reactions may be more frequently encountered.
With the increase of rice consumption in the West, the prevalence of allergy to rice may increase.
Symptoms include abdominal cramping and similar pain, nausea, vomiting, rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis, dyspnoea, asthma, contact urticaria, atopic dermatitis, dermatitis, angioedema and anaphylaxis.
Occupational contact dermatitis and/or asthma may occur in rice workers and occasionally in bakers.
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, a symptom complex of severe vomiting and diarrhoea occurring in infants several hours after the ingestion of particular food proteins, has been reported to be caused by rice in some instances.
Contact dermatitis from rice leaf has been reported.
Talc-coated rice (generally sold in South America and clearly labelled as such) must be thoroughly rinsed before cooking, as the talc can be contaminated with asbestos.