Mustard Allergy Test
Latin name: Brassica/Sinapis spp.
Source material: Black and white seeds
Common names: White Mustard, Black Mustard, Brown Mustard
Mustard is a food which may result in allergy symptoms in sensitised individuals.
Mustard Allergy Test: Allergen Exposure
Mustard is one of the oldest known spices, and has been used by humans for thousands of years, including in ancient China, Greece and Rome.
White Mustard is a round, hard seed, beige or straw-coloured. Black Mustard is a round, hard seed, varying in colour from dark brown to black, smaller and much stronger in taste than the White. Brown Mustard is similar in size to the Black variety and varies from light to dark brown.
The seeds are commonly ground and combined with other additives including sugar or honey, salt, fresh herbs (particularly tarragon) and dried spices to create mustard pastes.
Several varieties of hot mustard pastes contain either brown or black mustard or combine seeds of different species.
Some types of mustard contain turmeric, which gives a bright yellow colour.
The seeds may also be used whole as a condiment or ingredient in some cuisines.
Mustard Allergy Test: Allergen Description
Several allergens present in white mustard have been isolated, including an albumin/amylase inhibitor and an albumin. A similar albumin is present in brown mustard and is considered a major allergen.
No allergens present in black mustard have been characterised.
Mustard Allergy Test: Potential Cross-Reactivity
Cross-reactivity between members of the Brassicaceae family is rare. However, an extensive cross-reactivity among the different individual species of the genus could be expected, in particular among the various mustards. Nonetheless, cross-reactivity may not necessarily be absolute.
Mustard Allergy Test: Clinical Experience
Mustard may commonly induce symptoms of food allergy, including severe anaphylactic reactions, in sensitised individuals, including infants and children.
In scratch tests performed with common spices in 1,120 atopic patients, positive results were seen most frequently to curry and paprika, and when the components of curry were tested separately, coriander, caraway, cayenne and mustard were responsible for the vast majority of the skin reactions.
Allergic reactions to mustard start very early in life, usually below 3 years of age. Frequent contact with mustard in infancy could be explained by the presence of mustard in baby foods in glass pots for babies and commercial foods for toddlers. In this sense mustard is a dangerous “hidden” allergen.
Mustard is a potent allergen and may result in anaphylaxis or idiopathic anaphylaxis. Three individuals who experienced anaphylactic reactions to ingesting a small amount of mustard sauce were described.
A 43-year-old man developed 4 reactions following the ingestion of foods containing mustard sauce. Symptoms included pruritis, swelling of the tongue, dysphagia, dysphonia, facial oedema, and progressive respiratory difficulty.
A second patient, a 17-year-old girl, experienced 2 episodes of pruritis, swelling of the lips and tongue, and facial oedema after eating a salad containing mustard.
A 19 year-old developed sysphonia, dysphagia, generalised urticaria and respiratory difficulty flowing the ingestion of mustard sauce.
Mustard allergy may result in adverse cutaneous reactions, including angioedema and urticaria.
Contact urticaria from Mustard in occupational settings has been described.
A skin burn from culinary Mustard has been described.
Pancreatitis as a complication of Mustard-induced anaphylaxis has been reported.