Mandarin Allergy Test
Latin name: Citrus reticulata
Common names: Mandarin, Mandarin orange, Tangerine, Clementine, Satsuma, Dancy
Synonyms: C. deliciosa, C. nobilis
Mandarin Allergy Test: Allergen Exposure
Native to south-eastern Asia and the Philippines, the mandarin is also cultivated in Japan, southern China, India, and the East Indies. For commercial exploitation, mandarins have several disadvantages, including that (unlike the orange) the fruit does not ship well. But increasing cultivation in non-Eastern tropical areas has led to increasing availability.
The mandarin can be eaten raw, and is conveniently easy to peel. In addition, it is commonly used in fruit salads, gelatins, puddings, and cakes. Smaller mandarins are canned in syrup.
The dried rind can be used as a flavouring, and similarly the essential oil extracted from the peel is used in flavouring hard candy, gelatins, ice cream, chewing gum, liqueurs and bakery goods. A paste produced from the essential oil is a popular flavouring in carbonated drinks. Unlike orange, mandarin is not widely used as a juice.
The fruit is said to be antiemetic, aphrodisiac, astringent, laxative and tonic. The flowers, pericarp, endocarp, exocarp and seed are said to have a number of medicinal properties and to have been used in the treatment of a number of ailments.
Mandarin essential oil and petitgrain oil, and their various tinctures and essences, are valued in perfume manufacturing. The substance bergapten, from this and other citrus fruits, is sometimes added to tanning preparations, since it promotes pigmentation in the skin; though it can cause dermatitis or allergic responses in some people.
More recently mandarin has been exploited as a source of anti-oxidants and chemical exfoliants in specialised cosmetics.
Mandarin Allergy Test: Allergen Description
Several potential allergens present in mandarin have been characterised.
The presence of a lipid transfer protein has been identified in the peel and the pulp, the presence of a profilin has been inferred, and a cross-reactive protein has been detected.
Mandarin Allergy Test: Potential Cross-Reactivity
An extensive cross-reactivity among the different individual species of the Rutaceae or citrus family could be expected, but has not been reported specifically for mandarin.
Cross-reactivity between mandarin and other profilin-containing foods and plants is possible.
Mandarin Allergy Test: Clinical Experience
Anecdotal evidence suggests that Mandarin may occasionally induce symptoms of food allergy in sensitised individuals; however, few studies have been reported to date.
Clinical presentation of citrus fruit allergy, reported mostly for orange, is heterogeneous, varying from mild oral allergy syndrome to severe anaphylaxis. Biphasic anaphylactic reactions have been reported following ingestion of mandarin.
In one case, a 24-year-old-woman was described who experienced an anaphylactic reaction (pronounced oral allergy syndrome, throat swelling, angioedema of the face, and severe bronchospasm) beginning within half an hour after ingestion of a mandarin.
Importantly, individuals allergic to mandarin or another citrus fruit may not necessarily be allergic to all citrus fruits.
Allergic symptoms were observed in farmers engaged in mandarin farming, but might not have been due to Mandarin, but to pesticides, mites, or some other cause.
Contact dermatitis from the essential oil of mandarin in fragrance has been reported.
Occupational asthma in a mandarin-orchard worker, from inhaling arrowhead scale dust, has been reported.
Obstruction of the small intestine due to orange and mandarin has been reported.
Reactions have also been noted to mandarin seeds.