Hake Allergy Test
Latin name: Merluccius merluccius
Source material: Fish muscle
Common names: European hake, Argentine hake, Panama hake, Silver hake, Shallow-water hake
Hake is a food which may result in allergy symptoms in sensitised individuals.
Hake Allergy Test: Allergen Exposure
Hake is a species of fish closely related to both cod and haddock, found in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean in waters from 200–350 metres deep. It is widely consumed by humans, with the highest demand coming from European countries, most notably Spain, which accounts for around 50% of European hake consumption, followed by France, Italy, and Portugal. It is often sold in France as “saumon blanc”, or “white salmon”.
As an important food species, it is heavily fished, with some populations thought to be being fished unsustainably. For example, around 80% of adult hake has apparently disappeared from Argentine waters. European hake catches have also been depleted in recent years as a consequence of overfishing in the Mediterranenan and Black Sea.
Hake is sold as frozen, fillets or steaks, fresh, smoked, or salted. Processed hake products are also distributed by wholesalers. It is mild in flavour with white flaky flesh which is soft when raw but firms up when cooked.
It is traditionally prepared either pan-fried, grilled or baked, and often cooked with tomatoes, garlic, chorizo and paprika.
Hake is an excellent protein source while being low in saturated fats, and also a decent source of omega-3 fatty acids.
Hake Allergy Test: Allergen Description
No specific allergens present in hake have been characterised, although a number of proteins have been identified.
Hake Allergy Test: Potential Cross-Reactivity
Species within groups of fish, like Gadiformes (examples: codfish and hake) and Scombroid fishes (examples: mackerel and tuna) seem to share allergenic components. The overlap of allergen specificity between the groups seems to be moderate or even small.
Hake Allergy Test: Clinical Experience
Sensitisation to fish allergen is common. Fish, including hake, is a potential cause of food allergy and atopic dermatitis. Whitefish, including hake as well as cod, haddock, halibut, whiting, bass and flounder are among the most common types of fish resulting in allergic reactions.
Hake is one of the most frequently consumed fish in Spain. In a study in Spanish children, hake was shown to provoke the strongest IgE responses and had allergens in common with other species of fish.
Immediate allergic reactions may follow ingestion of even minute amounts of fish.
Symptoms can include oral allergy syndrome, generalised urticaria, facial angioedema and anaphylaxis.
Because patients react to both cooked and raw fish, it is assumed the allergens are heat-resistant. However, more recent studies indicate that patients may react differently to processed food and that allergic reactions may be species-specific.
It has been reported that some fish allergic persons can exhibit allergic symptoms due to the steam (airborne allergens) from cooking fish.
Acute anisakiasis as a result of the larvae of the fish parasite Anisakis simplex may occur following ingestion of undercooked or raw hake.
Symptoms can include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention, diarrhea, blood and mucus in stool, and mild fever. Allergic reactions with rash and itching, and infrequently, anaphylaxis, can also occur.
Fish allergy is sometimes confused with a reaction to histamine in spoiled fish.