Gluten Allergy Test
Latin name: (as common name)
Source material: Gluten from Wheat
Common names: Gluten, Tri a Gluten, Gliadin, Gamma-Gliadin, Omega-gliadin
Gluten is a food protein which may result in allergy symptoms in sensitised individuals.
Gluten Allergy Test: Allergen Exposure
Gluten is the common name for the elastic rubbery protein present in wheat, rye, barley and to a lesser degree in oats.
Its principal utility for humans throughout history has been to bind together the dough used for bread and other baked goods. It contributes to consistency and sponginess, both desirable textural qualities.
Gluten Allergy Test: Allergen Description
The gluten allergen has been identified and characterized.
Gluten from wheat, barley, rye and oats may result in symptoms of coeliac disease in susceptible individuals. However, although oats contain gluten, studies have reported that the levels present are too low to necessitate exclusion by individuals with coeliac disease.
Similarly corn, rice, other cereal grains such as sorghum, millet, teff, ragi and job’s tears as well as buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth can safely be ingested by a person with coeliac disease.
Gluten Allergy Test: Potential Cross-Reactivity
Studies of wheat allergens have reported various degrees of cross-reactivity.
Gluten Allergy Test: Clinical Experience
Gluten is among the most important food components accounting for hypersensitivity reactions in children. Adverse reactions to gluten protein include:
Food-dependant exercise-induced asthma or anaphylaxis
Coeliac disease, a non-IgE-mediated enteropathy caused by gliadin
The onset of adverse reactions in the first two conditions may be immediate, delayed, or both immediate and delayed.
Sensitisation to gluten by ingestion can lead to food allergy symptoms, whereas sensitisation by inhalation causes baker’s asthma and rhinitis.
The major allergen resulting in gluten-dependant exercise-induced anaphylaxis (GDEIA) is a gliadin, a common and cross-reactive allergen found in wheat, barley and rye.
Wheat, and in particular the gluten component, may result in or exacerbate atopic dermatitis.
Baker’s asthma is a frequent allergy in the baking industry. The prevalence of asthma among bakers has been shown to be around 10%, and the prevalence of cereal allergy between 15-25%.
The number of patients suffering from baker’s asthma caused by bread wheat has been increasing, and includes not only people engaged in food industries, but also those who live near a factory producing wheat flour products.
Coeliac disease is widespread, occurring in 0.5-1% of the population. Coeliac disease is traditionally associated with European countries, particularly Scandinavia, but is now commonly seen in populations of European ancestry (North and South Americas, Australia), and in North Africa, the Middle East and South Asia.
Coeliac disease may occur at any age. In infants, symptoms will usually appear only a few months after the introduction of foods containing Gluten into the diet (6-12 months); in adulthood, the onset is usually between 30-40 years.
After onset, it is a life-long disorder. It tends to affect twice as many females as males.
Gluten may be a “hidden allergen”, occurring as it does in a large amount of prepared and processed foods, even those not normally associated with grain or bread products.