Chub Mackerel Allergy Test
Latin name: Scomber japonicus
Source material: Fish muscle
Chub mackerel is a food which may result in allergy symptoms in sensitised individuals.
Chub Mackerel Allergy Test: Allergen Exposure
Mackerel is a common term for a number of related species of oily fish in the Scombridae family, which also includes tuna and bonito. It is an important food fish and is consumed by humans around the world.
This species, which is very similar to the Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus, is found mostly in the Pacific, but also in the Atlantic, where it is called a chub mackerel or, in some languages, Spanish mackerel. It is regularly fished and canned for human consumption, pet food, bait, or served fresh.
Chub mackerel can be caught all year round, in both the Pacific and Atlantic, but they are especially plentiful between June and November.
The chub mackerel is a popular dish in Sicilian cuisine, where it is eaten fresh or served raw, marinated in oil, lemon, salt, and pepper. In Korea, a dish called Jorim is made with chub mackerel, tofu, and vegetables.
Chub mackerel is an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids, and a good source of niacin, phosphorus, protein, vitamin B12 and selenium.
Chub Mackerel Allergy Test: Allergen Description
No specific allergens present in chub mackerel have been characterised, although a number of proteins have been identified.
Canned chub mackerel may have reduced allergenicity when compared to fresh fish, according to research.
Chub Mackerel Allergy Test: Potential Cross-Reactivity
Species within groups of fish, like Gadiformes (examples: codfish and hake) and Scombroid fishes (examples: mackerel and tuna) seem to share allergenic components. The overlap of allergen specificity between the groups seems to be moderate or even small.
Chub Mackerel Allergy Test: Clinical Experience
Sensitivity to mackerel is relatively common. In a study of fish- and crustacea-allergic adults, the reactivity to mackerel was the second highest of any species. Another study demonstrated sensitivity to mackerel in 20% of a group of cod-sensitive children.
IgE antibodies have been measured to mackerel in two groups of patients with atopic dermatitis.
Immediate allergic reactions may follow ingestion of even minute amounts of fish.
Symptoms can include oral allergy syndrome, generalised urticaria, facial angioedema and anaphylaxis.
Because patients react to both cooked and raw fish, it is assumed the allergens are heat-resistant. However, more recent studies indicate that patients may react differently to processed food and that allergic reactions may be species-specific.
It has been reported that some fish allergic persons can exhibit allergic symptoms due to the steam from cooking fish.
Acute anisakiasis as a result of the larvae of the fish parasite Anisakis simplex may occur following ingestion of undercooked or raw chub mackerel.
Symptoms can include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention, diarrhea, blood and mucus in stool, and mild fever. Allergic reactions with rash and itching, and infrequently, anaphylaxis, can also occur.
Chub mackerel and other members of the family rapidly degrade and may, if improperly stored, contain large amounts of histamine associated with the bacterial enzyme histidine decarboxylase, which converts histidine to histamine. Mackerel allergy may therefore sometimes be confused with a reaction to histamine present in the spoiled fish.